**are defined as the foundation which laid at a depth equal to or less than its width.**

*Shallow foundations***of footing refer to the sinking of a foundation due to vertical deformation of the underlying soil.**

*Settlements*## What are the types of **Shallow Foundations**?

**Shallow Foundations**

The part of a building which is in contact with the earth and transfers the loads from superstructure to the soil underneath it is called the * foundation*.

*.*

**footing**- Shallow foundation
- Deep foundation

## 2 types of Shallow foundation

*shallow foundation***shear failures**foundation need be stationary

- Footings
- Raft foundation

- Spread footings
- Strap footings
- Combined footings

- Strip footings
- Isolated footings.

#### Isolated footings :

**footing**to the soil beneath are termed as Isolated footings.

#### Strip footings:

**walls**to the soil beneath.

#### Strapped footings:

**strap**.

#### Combined footings:

The footings holding two or higher columns when the areas needed for isolated footings would overlay are termed as combined footings.

By joining the column with another column, the load will uniformly be shared.

In plan, trapezoidal or rectangle will be the footing shape.

#### Raft Foundation:

**.**

*Mat foundations*## Bearing Capacity:

#### Ultimate bearing capacity

#### Net Ultimate bearing capacity

#### Net safe bearing capacity

#### Gross safe bearing capacity

#### Net secure settlement pressure

**Unit soil pressure or safe bearing pressure**is also called The net secure settlement pressure.

#### Net allowable bearing pressure

## Factors affecting bearing capacity

- Physical and engineering properties of the soil.
- Footing Shape, depth, size and the roughness.
- Groundwater table location
- Initial stresses, if any

#### Determination of ultimate bearing capacity by

## Types of Shear failures:

### Bearing capacity failures divided into three categories

- General shear failure
- Location shear failure
- Punching shear failure.

#### 1.General Shear failure

#### 2.Location shear failure

#### 3. Punching shear failure.

#### Water table effect on bearing capacity

Terzashi bearing capacity equation is determined based on the theory that the position of the groundwater table is at higher depth.

If the position of the groundwater table is at adjacent to the foundation base,

then the equation of bearing capacity requires to be done some modifications.

For * strip foundation*, Terzashi’s equation for bearing capacity is given by:

q ultimate=rDfNqRW1+CNc + 0.5rBNrRW2 ,

where RW1=(1+(W1Z/Df)) x 0.5 and RW2=(1+(W2Z/Df)) x 0.5

When ground water table location is at surface,then W1Z=0,RW1= 0.5,W2Z=0,RW2= 0.5

When ground water table location is at footing base,then W1Z=Df,RW1= 1,W2Z=0,RW2= 0.5

When groundwater table location is below footing base,

then W1Z=Df, RW1= 1, W2Z=Groundwater table depth, RW2=Equavialant value from the equation.

##### For **Square footing,**

**Square footing,**

q=rDfNq+CNc1.3+rBNr0.4,where B= footing side.

##### For** circular footing,**

**circular footing,**

q=rDfNq+CNc1.3+rBNr0.3,where B= footing diametre.

## Eccentrically loaded foundations:

## Settlement analysis:

### Settlements may be classified as

#### 1.Uniform or total settlement

**constant**settlement, then the foundation is said to have undergone a uniform settlement.

#### Factors which may result in the uniform settlement are:

#### 2.Non-uniform or differential settlement

**varied**settlement, then the foundation is said to have undergone a uniform settlement.

#### Factors which may result in the non-uniform settlement are:

## Settlements of shallow foundations:

### Shallow Foundation settlements under a load can be classified into:

#### 1.Immediate settlements or Elastic settlements (Si)

#### 2.Consolidation settlements

#### 3.Secondary consolidation settlements.

### Conclusion:

**Read More: Soil particle size|classifications**

**Read More:**3 Soil sampling methods for construction

Great post. I was checking continuously this blog and I am inspired! Extremely helpful info specially the ultimate part 🙂 I care for such information a lot. I was looking for this particular information for a very long time. Thank you and good luck.

I am typically to running a blog and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I am going to bookmark your site and maintain checking for brand new information.

You could certainly see your enthusiasm in the work you write. The world hopes for more passionate writers like you who aren’t afraid to say how they believe. Always follow your heart.

WONDERFUL Post.thanks for share..extra wait .. ?

This is great! I’m happy I read your post because it’s better than similar blogs I’ve read from everyone else about this subject. May I ask you to write more about this? Could you write an additional example? Thank you!

You cover more useful information than I have read anywhere else.

Please could you share your sourceexperience

with your readers?

I like this! Is there anything more I should explore

next? Or is this enough?

Well-written piece – people need to read more like this, as most info for this topic is generalized.

You give real worth to people.

Would it be ok if I share this post? It’s topical advice worth

passing on! My friends would get a lot from this too.

I am really inspired with your writing talents and also with

the format on your blog. Is that this a paid subject matter or did you

customize it your self? Anyway keep up the excellent high quality writing, it’s rare to

look a great weblog like this one nowadays..

I enjoyed reading your piece and it provided me with a lot of value.

Thank you for sharing this article with me. It helped me a lot and I love it.

You’ve the most impressive websites.

Hi my friend! I want to say that this post is amazing, nice written and include almost all significant infos. I would like to see more posts like this.

Appreciating the dedication you put into your blog and detailed information you offer. It’s great to come across a blog every once in a while that isn’t the same outdated rehashed material. Fantastic read! I’ve bookmarked your site and I’m including your RSS feeds to my Google account.

I was just looking for this info for some time. After 6 hours of continuous Googleing, at last I got it in your website. I wonder what is the lack of Google strategy that do not rank this type of informative websites in top of the list. Usually the top web sites are full of garbage.